Broccoli is cultivated as a raw vegetable. It looks exactly like cauliflower, but it is green in colour. That’s why it is also called green cabbage. Broccoli is consumed plain in large quantities by making salads. Boiling it and eating it is also very beneficial for the human body. Many nutrients are present in broccoli, which can also eliminate many diseases. This fruit is also very helpful for cancer and heart diseases.
A good amount of magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and calcium is found in its fruits, strengthening the body’s bones. Apart from this, the amount of protein in broccoli is also very high, due to which people going to the gym are also asked to consume broccoli.
Soil, Climate & Temperature
Fertile sandy loam soil is required for the cultivation of broccoli. Since its plants are of low height, there must be proper drainage in its cultivated land. P.H. of the soil for its cultivation. The value should be between 6 to 7. Broccoli is a cold climate crop, so it is cultivated along with the Rabi crop in India.
Apart from this, the cultivation of broccoli can be done easily, even in the summer season in hilly areas. Its plants do not require much rainfall. Broccoli plants germinate at a temperature of 20 to 25 degrees, and their plants grow well at 20 degrees.
Field Preparation & Fertilizer
At the beginning of the broccoli field, deep ploughing is done with the soil turning plough. After ploughing, the area is left open for some time. And 10 to 12 carts of old cow dung manure are put in the field naturally. Then putting cow dung manure in the area, the cultivator does two to three oblique ploughing, due to which the waste mixes well in the field’s soil. After a few days of ploughing, the area is pressed again, making the field’s soil friable. After this, the field is levelled by placing a footing.
If you want to use chemical fertilizers in the broccoli field, you should apply three to four bags of N.P.K. at the time of the last ploughing of the area per hectare. First, the amount has to be poured. After this, while irrigating the plants, give 20 K.G. of urea to the plants during flowering.
Planting broccoli plants is done in both seed and plant form. If you want, you can also buy ready-made plants from a registered arboretum, this will save you time, and yield will also be obtained soon. But the plants should be healthy and one month old. Then, transplanting these plants can be done in both flat and med.
To transplant plants in flat land, you must prepare beds of appropriate size. Keeping a distance of one to one and a half feet in these beds, the plants are planted in rows. Apart from this, the bund is prepared to produce its plants on the bund, keeping a distance of one to 1.25 feet. Plants are transplanted, keeping a distance of one feet on these meadows.
Broccoli plants are transplanted according to different places. For example, in the plains, its plants are planted in October and November. Apart from this, its plants are grown in the mountainous areas in March.
Broccoli plants require only 5 to 6 irrigations. Its initial irrigation is done immediately after transplanting. After this, water should be given to broccoli plants at an interval of 10 to 15 days.
Broccoli plants grow at a slight height from the ground surface, due to which their plants require more weed control. Therefore, both natural and chemical methods are used for weed control on its plants. To get weed control on plants by a chemical process, a proper amount of Trifluralin or Tok E-25 is sprayed on the land, due to which weeds are negligible in the field.
Apart from this, for weed control in a natural way, weeds are removed by hoeing the plants. Its plants require only 4 to 5 weeding. Its initial hoeing is done about 10 to 15 days after transplanting. Subsequent transplanting is to be done at 10 to 12 days.
Diseases & Prevention
Damping off disease
It is a soil-borne disease which appears as dampness across the plants. When affected by this disease, the plant leaves start turning yellow, after which the plant rots from near the ground surface. This disease is often seen in the condition of waterlogging in the field. Plants can be saved from this disease by arranging proper drainage. Apart from this, before planting the seeds in the area, they should be treated with appropriate Trichoderma viridi and transplanted. Apart from this, a proper amount of Carbendazim is sprayed on the plants.
Stem Borer Disease
This type of disease is seen during the development of plants. The caterpillar of this disease destroys the plants by eating their leaves. When the effect of the disease increases, a round shaped hole starts appearing on the stems of the plants, due to which the plant is not able to grow properly. To prevent this disease, neem oil or decoction is sprayed on broccoli plants. Apart from this, an appropriate amount of endosulfan or quinalphos should be sprayed on the plants.
This insect disease attacks the plants as a group. Chapa insect disease damages the delicate organs of plants. These insect diseases are smaller in size and yellow, green and black in appearance. This type of disease is often seen in the hot summer season. This disease can be prevented by spraying appropriate malathion or endosulfan.
Broccoli plants are ready to yield 60 to 80 days after transplanting. When the main end of the fruits on its plants is prepared, it is harvested. Broccoli fruits should be harvested with stalks of 10 to 12 cm. With this, the fruit can be preserved for a long time. After the first harvesting of fruits, other branches start coming out on the plants, after which fruits come out on them again, but these fruits are smaller in size. Also, Tractor Trolley is used to transport all the goods from one place to another.
About 80 to 100 quintals yield is obtained in one hectare field. Due to this, farmer brothers can earn more profit by earning up to 3 to 5 lakhs from one time crop of Broccoli.